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Introduction to Research Methods
Research methods are the strategies, processes or techniques utilized in the collection of data or evidence for analysis in order to uncover new information or create better understanding of a topic.

There are different types of research methods which use different tools for data collection.

Source: What are Research Methods? (University of Newcastle Library)
Types of Research Studies
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Literature Reviews
Literature review (or review articles) can help identify useful research in a specific area of study. In a literature review, researchers systematically read and analyze a large number of articles on a topic, usually published within a specific time period, to draw some larger connections or conclusions about the topic. Researchers will describe their review method and criteria and will discuss the articles in-depth. 

Longitudinal Studies
Researchers study a group of participants or actions over a long period of time. Such studies allow researchers to document what has changed for the participants over the years. The article about the study will report about the research questions being investigated, how the study is conducted (a.k.a. the research methodology), and draw conclusions on the data gathered over a period of time.

Qualitative Research
Researchers gather data about lived experiences, emotions or behaviors, and the meanings individuals attach to them. Qualitative studies help researchers gain a better understanding of complex concepts, social interactions, or cultural phenomena. This type of research is useful in the exploration of how or why things have occurred, interpreting events, and describing actions.

Some common qualitative research methods include:

Quantitative Research
Researchers gather numerical data which can be ranked, measured, or categorized through statistical analysis. Quantitative studies help reserachers uncover patterns or relationships that can lead to informed generalizations.

Some common quantitative research methods incude:

Mixed Methods
Researchers integrate both qualitative and quantitative research methods. Mixed methods studies provide a holistic approach, combining and analyzing statistical data with deeper contextualized insights. Using Mixed Methods also enables traingulation, or verification, of the data from two or more sources.

Sources:
What are Research Methods? (University of Newcastle Library)
Types of Research Literature (College of San Mateo Library)
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Encyclopedias on Research Methods